Elevation: 8,749 feet (2,667 meters)
Prominence 3,028 feet (923 meters)
Location: Guadalupe Mountains, Culberson County, Texas.
Coordinates: 31°53′29.26″ N 104°51′38.56″ W
First Ascent: First ascent by unknown Native Americans. Earliest human evidence here is from 12,000 years ago so Paleo hunters undoubtedly climbed to the summit.
- Guadalupe Peak is the highest mountain in 268,601-acre Texas and 86,412-acre Guadalupe Mountains National Park. Guadalupe Peak is the 14th highest state high point in the United States.
- Guadalupe Peak is one of seven 8,000-foot-high peaks in Guadalupe Mountains National Park and one of nine 8,000-footers in Texas.
- Guadalupe Peak is fairly isolated. It’s located in far western Texas, 110 miles east of El Paso and 55 miles southwest of Carlsbad and Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. Nearest services including a gas station are 35 miles from the trailhead. Guadalupe Mountains National Park is one of the most isolated national parklands in the lower 48 states.
- Guadalupe Peak and the Guadalupe Mountains are composed of ancient limestone deposited as part of the Capitan Reef, a barrier reef in a shallow inland sea, over 280 million years ago during the Permian Period. The caves in Carlsbad Caverns National Park to the east are also part of this massive fossil reef structure.
- A stainless steel pyramid was deposited on the summit by American Airlines to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the famed Butterfield Overland Mail Route which passed south of Guadalupe Peak. The stage route carried mail to southern California before the Pony Express. The gaudy pyramid still adorns the summit. One side has the American Airlines logo; the second has a U.S. Postal Service recognizing the Butterfield riders; and the third side has a compass with the Boy Scouts of America logo. The summit register is at the pyramid base.
- Skytram, a proposed aerial tramway, was almost built on Guadalupe Peak but resistance from environmental groups including The Sierra Club quashed the project.
- Guadalupe Peak and the Guadalupe Mountains are one of the windiest places in the United States. It can be particularly windy during the cooler months when it’s best to climb the mountain. The national park brochure for climbing Guadalupe Peak warns, “Winds in excess of 80 miles per hour are not uncommon.”
- Famed western writer Edward Abbey wrote in his essay On the High Edge of Texas, published in Beyond the Wall: Essays from the Outside, about Guadalupe Peak: “The climb by foot trail is difficult but not beyond the ability of any two-legged American, aged eight to eighty, in normal health. The wind continues to blow, unceasing, unrelenting. When I asked a local woman about the wind she said that it always blows in West Texas---from January to December. Must be hard to get used to, I suggested. We never get used to it, she said,; we just put up with it.”
- Near Guadalupe Peak is The Bowl, a high basin that harbors a relict forest from moister Pliestocene Epoch times after the northern ice sheets had receded. Here are yellow pine, white fir, limber pine, Douglas fir, and Populus tremuloides, more commonly known as quaking aspen. This stand of aspen, along with another relict stand in Chisos Basin in Big Bend National Park, are the southernmost group of aspens. A herd of elk, reintroduced in 1926 after being exterminated by hunters, also lives in the park’s high reaches.
Climbing Guadalupe Peak
Guadalupe Peak is climbed by the 4.2-mile-long Guadalupe Peak Trail, which begins at Pine Springs Campground on the east side of the mountain and a half mile north of the park visitor center. The good trail is easily followed to the summit. Allow six to eight hours to walk the 8.4-mile round-trip hike from the trailhead. Elevation gain is 3,019 feet. Summer temperatures are hot. Start early and carry lots of water. Also watch for rattlesnakes.